A Comparison Between Three- and Four-Coil Wireless Power Transfer Systems with Resonant Coils
Keywords:four-coil, power transfer efficiency, three-coil, wireless power transfer systems
In this paper, it is demonstrated that the efficiency and ability to transfer power to the load in three-coil wireless power transfer (WPT) systems are always higher than in equivalent four-coil ones. On the other hand, it is shown that there are features attainable in four-coil WPT system that are not in three-coil ones. For instance, in a four-coil WPT system, which can be divided into source, two communication, and load circuits, it is possible to devise a method for which the maximum power transferred to the load circuit or the maximum efficiency do not depend on the mutual inductance between the two communication coils, independently of the load resistance value. The necessary conditions to achieve the above feature together with the overall circuit analysis are discussed in details and practical results presented.
A. Marincic, “Nikola Tesla and the Wireless Transmission of Energy,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., vol. PAS-101, no. 10, pp. 4064–4068, Oct. 1982, doi: 10.1109/TPAS.1982.317084.
N. Tesla, “Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy,” U.S. Patent: 1.119.732, 1914.
W. H. Ko, S. P. Liang, and C. D. F. Fung, “Design of radio-frequency powered coils for implant instruments,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 634–640, Nov. 1977, doi: 10.1007/BF02457921.
W. C. Brown, “The History of Power Transmission by Radio Waves,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1230–1242, Sep. 1984, doi: 10.1109/TMTT.1984.1132833.
M. Soma, D. C. Galbraith, and R. L. White, “Radio-Frequency Coils in Implantable Devices: Misalignment Analysis and Design Procedure,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-34, no. 4, pp. 276–282, Apr. 1987, doi: 10.1109/TBME.1987.326088.
K. Van Schuylenbergh, R. Puers, F. Rodes, F. Bumy, M. Donkerwolcke, and F. Moulart, “Monitoring orthopaedic implants using active telemetry,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Oct. 1992, pp. 2672–2673, doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.1992.5761503.
G. Vandevoorde and R. Puers, “Wireless energy transfer for stand-alone systems: a comparison between low and high power applicability,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 92, no. 1–3, pp. 305–311, Aug. 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0924-4247(01)00588-X.
S. F. Pichorim and P. J. Abatti, “Design of Coils for Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Sized Biotelemetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1487–1489, Aug. 2004, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2004.827542.
G. Wang, W. Liu, M. Sivaprakasam, and G. A. Kendir, “Design and analysis of an adaptive transcutaneous power telemetry for biomedical implants,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 2109–2117, Oct. 2005, doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2005.852923.
M. Kiani, Uei-Ming Jow, and M. Ghovanloo, “Design and Optimization of a 3-Coil Inductive Link for Efficient Wireless Power Transmission,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 579–591, Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TBCAS.2011.2158431.
L. Sun, H. Tang, and Y. Zhang, “Determining the Frequency for Load-Independent Output Current in Three-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System,” Energies, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 9719–9730, Sep. 2015, doi: 10.3390/en8099719.
Y. Yi, U. Buttner, Y. Fan, and I. G. Foulds, “Design and optimization of a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for biomedical implants,” Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1379–1390, Oct. 2015, doi: 10.1002/cta.2024.
W. X. Zhong, C. Zhang, X. Liu, and S. Y. R. Hui, “A Methodology for Making a Three-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System More Energy Efficient Than a Two-Coil Counterpart for Extended Transfer Distance,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 933–942, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2312020.
W. Niu, J. Wang, J. Chu, and W. Gu, “Optimal single relay position of a 3-coil wireless power transfer system,” J. Eng., vol. 2016, no. 7, pp. 249–252, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.1049/joe.2016.0082.
U. Surendrakumaran and A. Nachiappan, “Performance analysis of wireless power transfer(WPT) through two-coil and three-coil structure,” in 2017 International Conference on Innovative Research In Electrical Sciences (IICIRES), Jun. 2017, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/IICIRES.2017.8078308.
J. Zhang, X. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. He, “Comparative Analysis of Two-Coil and Three-Coil Structures for Wireless Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 341–352, Jan. 2017, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2016.2526780.
P. J. Abatti, C. M. de Miranda, M. A. P. da Silva, and S. F. Pichorim, “Analysis and optimisation of three-coil wireless power transfer systems,” IET Power Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 68–72, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1049/iet-pel.2016.0492.
R. Lu, M. R. Haider, and Y. Massoud, “A Three-Coil Coupled High-Efficiency Power Link for Wireless Power Transfer Application,” in 2019 IEEE 20th Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Apr. 2019, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109/WAMICON.2019.8765470.
A. Kurs, A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, P. Fisher, and M. Soljacic, “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances,” Science (80-. )., vol. 317, no. 5834, pp. 83–86, Jul. 2007, doi: 10.1126/science.1143254.
Chih-Jung Chen, Tah-Hsiung Chu, Chih-Lung Lin, and Zeui-Chown Jou, “A Study of Loosely Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II Express Briefs, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 536–540, Jul. 2010, doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2010.2048403.
A. P. Sample, D. A. Meyer, and J. R. Smith, “Analysis, experimental results, and range adaptation of magnetically coupled resonators for wireless power transfer,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 544–554, 2011, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2046002.
S. Cheon, Y.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kang, M. L. Lee, J.-M. Lee, and T. Zyung, “Circuit-Model-Based Analysis of a Wireless Energy-Transfer System via Coupled Magnetic Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2906–2914, Jul. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2072893.
Y. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and K. Chen, “Frequency-Splitting Analysis of Four-Coil Resonant Wireless Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 2436–2445, Jul. 2014, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2013.2295007.
S. Huang, Z. Li, Y. Li, X. Yuan, and S. Cheng, “A Comparative Study Between Novel and Conventional Four-Resonator Coil Structures in Wireless Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1–4, Nov. 2014, doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2014.2331962.
S. Y. R. Hui, W. Zhong, and C. K. Lee, “A Critical Review of Recent Progress in Mid-Range Wireless Power Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 4500–4511, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2013.2249670.
P. J. Abatti, S. F. Pichorim, and C. M. de Miranda, “Maximum power transfer versus efficiency in mid-range wireless power transfer systems,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 157–169, 2015.
Y. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and T. Lu, “Quantitative Analysis of System Efficiency and Output Power of Four-Coil Resonant Wireless Power Transfer,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 184–190, Mar. 2015, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2319295.
Zhe Liu, Han Zhao, Chunyan Shuai, and Siqi Li, “Analysis and equivalent of four-coil and two-coil systems in wireless power transfer,” in 2015 IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power (2015 WoW), Jun. 2015, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/WoW.2015.7132835.
C. Xiao, K. Wei, F. Liu, and Y. Ma, “Matching capacitance and transfer efficiency of four wireless power transfer systems via magnetic coupling resonance,” Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 811–831, Jun. 2017, doi: 10.1002/cta.2247.
C. M. Miranda, S. F. Pichorim, and P. J. Abatti, “On the impact of relay circuit losses in four‐coil wireless power transfer systems,” Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1922–1932, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1002/cta.2685.
P. Silvester, Modern Electromagnetic Fields. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1968.
D. M. Beams and S. G. Annam, “Validation of a reflected-impedance design method for wireless power transfer applications,” in 2012 IEEE 55th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), Aug. 2012, pp. 758–761, doi: 10.1109/MWSCAS.2012.6292131.