FD MAC Protocol Design for Co-Existing WLANs in 5G Cellular Networks





Directional transmission, Inter-user interference, Medium Access Control (MAC), Three-node FD communication.


In this paper, we design full-duplex (FD) medium access control (MAC) protocol for co-existing wireless local area networks (WLANs) in 5G cellular networks (WCFD-MAC). Our design considers some significant features of 5G networks, exceptionally, beamforming and FD capabilities at both, the base station and user equipment. FD communications may generate interferences, namely self-interference (SI) in bidirectional FD (BFD) and inter-user interferences in three-node FD (TNFD). Several efforts have been performed to mitigate the SI in BFD communications. However, the inter-user interferences in TNFD are still considered as a major drawback in FD networks. These interferences must be mitigated by an efficient MAC protocol design. WCFD-MAC protocol allows two neighboring users to simultaneously participate in TNFD communication without interfering with each other by using directional transmission and a three-node angle condition (TAC). Directional transmission combined with TAC increases system throughput. WCFD-MAC protocol allows a new half-duplex (HD) communication scheme referred to as three-node HD (TNHD). This scheme may occur when bidirectional FD (BFD) and TNFD communications cannot occur. TNHD scheme includes device-to-device (D2D) communication and allows energy efficiency, which is one of the keys requirements of 5G wireless networks. Simulations results show that WCFD-MAC protocol achieves higher throughput than existing works in the literature.


L. de Melo Guimarães and J. Luiz Bordim, “A Full-duplex MAC tailored for 5G Wireless Networks,” Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput., vol. 2018, no. 16, pp. 1-20. 2018. [2] M. S. Islam, T. Jessy, M. S. Hassan, K. Mondal, and T. Rahman, “Suitable beamforming technique for 5G wireless communications,” in 2016 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA), Noida, India, April 2016, pp. 1554-1559. [3] I. Ahmed et al., “A survey on hybrid beamforming techniques in 5G: Architecture and system model perspectives,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 3060–3097, 2018. [4] D. Wong, Q. Chen, and F. Chin, “Directional medium access control (MAC) protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks: a survey,” J. Sens. Actuator Netw., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 67–153, 2015. [5] Y.-B. Ko, J.-M. Choi, and N. H. Vaidya, “MAC protocols using directional antennas in IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks,” Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 783–795, 2008. [6] J. Jang et al., “Smart small cell with hybrid beamforming for 5G: Theoretical feasibility and prototype results,” IEEE Wirel. Commun., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 124–131, 2016. [7] M. Höyhtyä, O. Apilo, and M. Lasanen, “Review of latest advances in 3GPP standardization: D2D communication in 5G systems and its energy consumption models,” Future Internet, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 3, 2018. [8] H. Huang, W. Xiang, Y. Tao, B. Liu, and M. Hu, “Relay-Assisted D2D Transmission for Mobile Health Applications,” Sensors, vol. 18, no. 12, p. 4417, 2018. [9] Y. Cai, Y. Ni, J. Zhang, S. Zhao, and H. Zhu, “Energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency in underlay device-to-device communications enabled cellular networks,” China Commun., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 16–34, 2019. [10] J. Qiao, X. S. Shen, J. W. Mark, Q. Shen, Y. He, and L. Lei, “Enabling device-to-device communications in millimeterwave 5G cellular networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 209–215, 2015. [11] D. Della Penda, L. Fu, and M. Johansson, “Energy efficient D2D communications in dynamic TDD systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1260–1273, 2016. [12] X. Ge, J. Yang, H. Gharavi, and Y. Sun, “Energy efficiency challenges of 5G small cell networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 184–191, 2017. [13] R. Q. Hu and Y. Qian, “An energy efficient and spectrum efficient wireless heterogeneous network framework for 5G systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 94–101, 2014. [14] M. A. Alim, M. Kobayashi, S. Saruwatari, and T. Watanabe, “In-band full-duplex medium access control design for heterogeneous wireless LAN,” EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw., vol. 2017 no. 1, pp. 1-15. 2017. [15] A. Aijaz and P. Kulkarni, “Protocol design for enabling full-duplex operation in next-generation IEEE 802.11 WLANs,” IEEE Syst. J., no. 99, pp. 1–12, 2017.

Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, Vol. X, No. Y, Month 2020 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2179- 23

Brazilian Microwave and Optoelectronics Society-SBMO received 0 Month 2019; for review 0 Month 2019; accepted 0 Month 2020 Brazilian Society of Electromagnetism-SBMag © 2019 SBMO/SBMag ISSN 2179-1074

S. Diakite and F. M. Rizo, “Self-Interference Cancellation in MIMO Full-Duplex Transceivers,” Rev. Científica Ing. Electrónica Automática Comun., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 59–70, 2019. [17] B. van Liempd et al., “RF self-interference cancellation for full-duplex,” in 2014 9th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), 2014, pp. 526–531. [18] W. Bi, X. Su, L. Xiao, and S. Zhou, “Superposition coding based inter-user interference cancellation in full duplex cellular system,” in 2016 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference, 2016, pp. 1–6. [19] A. B. Pandya and B. D. Parmar, “The Impact of Directional Antennas on MAC Layer Protocol for Ad-Hoc Networks,” Int. J. of Computer sci. and Tech., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 348-352. 2012.. [20] O. W. Abdulwahhab, “Mobile Position Estimation based on Three Angles of Arrival using an Interpolative Neural Network,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 100, no. 7, 2014. [21] I. 802 11 W. Group, “Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Higher-speed physical layer in the 5GHz band,” IEEE Std 80211, 1999. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org. [Accessed Dec. 12, 2019]. [22] S. Goyal, P. Liu, O. Gurbuz, E. Erkip, and S. Panwar, “A distributed MAC protocol for full duplex radio,” in 2013 Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, 2013, pp. 788–792. [23] Bianchi Giuseppe, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535–547, 2000. [24] S. Sen, R. R. Choudhury, and S. Nelakuditi, “Listen (on the frequency domain) before you talk,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 2010, p. 16.




How to Cite

Diakite, S., Marante Rizo, F. ., & Bandiri, S. Y. M. . (2021). FD MAC Protocol Design for Co-Existing WLANs in 5G Cellular Networks. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe), 20(1), 30–59. https://doi.org/10.1590/2179-10742021v20i1915



Regular Papers