• Mouna.H
  • Mekaladevi. V
  • Nirmala Devi. M



Swarm Optimization, Reflection Coefficient, Microwave Absorbers, Velocity Restriction, Pareto Principl


Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been applied in electromagnetics to design microwave absorbers. Generally, microwave absorbers are used for absorbing the electromagnetic radiation caused due to numerous electronic equipments and is being extensively used in stealth technology.  The main aim of this paper is to find and analyze the minimized maximum reflection coefficient over a range of frequency and angle of incidence for a fixed number of layers and polarization. An improvised PSO algorithm has been suggested by utilizing a velocity restriction factor that intelligently searches for the optimum solution. The pareto principle with an improvisation in social and cognitive parameters has also been applied. The algorithm succeeded in finding better values of reflection coefficient for the microwave absorber structures comparatively. Based on the pareto principle a form of mutation technique is also used for better convergence. The results have been compared and tabulated for various combinations of the microwave absorber structure and the thickness of each layer is also optimized for a predefined database.


[1] Swayam Arora, Ramanpreet Kaur, Stealth Technology And Counter Stealth Radars: A Review, Research Inventy:
International Journal Of Engineering And Science Vol.3, Issue 12 (December 2013), PP 15-19
[2] Bowen Bai, Xiaoping Li, Jin Xu, and Yanming Liu, (2015). Reflections of Electromagnetic Waves Obliquely
Incident on a Multilayer Stealth Structure With Plasma and Radar Absorbing Material .IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.,
43(8), pp.2588-2597.
[3] Bose, J. C., Collected Physical Papers, Longmans, Green and Co., 1927.
[4] Jiang, L., Cui, J., Shi, L. and Li, X. (2009). Pareto optimal design of multilayer microwave absorbers for wideangle incidence using genetic algorithms. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 3(4), p.572.
[5] Kazemzadeh, A. and Karlsson, A. (2010). Multilayered Wideband Absorbers for Oblique Angle of
Incidence. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 58(11), pp.3637-3646.
[6] Gargama, H., Chaturvedi, S. and Thakur, A. (2012). Design and optimization of multilayered electromagnetic
shield using a real-coded genetic algorithm. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 39, pp.241-266.
[7] Ra'di, Y., Asadchy, V. and Tretyakov, S. (2013). Total Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Ultimately Thin
Layers. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 61(9), pp.4606-4614.
[8] Chakravarty, S., Mittra, R. and Williams, N. (2001). On the application of the microgenetic algorithm to the design
of broad-band microwave absorbers comprising frequency-selective surfaces embedded in multilayered dielectric
media. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 49(6), pp.1050-1059.
[9] Michielssen, E., Sajer, J., Ranjithan, S. and Mittra, R. (1993). Design of lightweight, broad-band microwave
absorbers using genetic algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 41(6), pp.1024-
[10] Goudos, S. (2009). Design of microwave broadband absorbers using a self-adaptive differential evolution
algorithm. Int J RF and Microwave Comp Aid Eng, 19(3), pp.364-372.
[11] R.H.J.M. Otten, and L.P.P.P. van Ginneken, The Annealing Algorithm, Kluwer, Boston, 1989.
[12] Cui, S. and Weile, D. (2005). Application of a parallel particle swarm optimization scheme to the design of
electromagnetic absorbers. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 53(11), pp.3616-3624.
[13] Roy, S., Roy, S., Tewary, J., Mahanti, A. and Mahanti, G. (2015). Particle swarm optimization for optimal design
of broadband multilayer microwave absorber for wide angle of incidence. Progress In Electromagnetics Research
B, 62, pp.121-135.
[14] J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, ‘‘Particle swarm optimization,’’ in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Netw., Perth,
Australia, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1942--1948.
[15] R. C. Eberhart and J. Kennedy, ‘‘A new optimizer using particle swarm theory,’’ in Proc. 6th Int. Symp.
Micromachine Human Sci., Nagoya, Japan, 1995, pp. 39--43. Symp. Micromachine HumanSci., Nagoya, Japan,
1995, pp. 39--43.
[16] R. C. Eberhart and Y. H. Shi, ‘‘Particle swarm optimization: Developments, applications and resources,’’ in Proc.
IEEE Congr. Evol. Comput., Seoul, Korea, 2001, pp. 81--86.
[17] Dib, N., Asi, M. and Sabbah, A. (2010). On the optimal design of multilayer microwave absorbers. Pier C, 13,
[18] Giannakopoulou, T., A. Oikonomou, and G. Kordas, “Double-layer microwave absorbers based on materials with
large magnetic and dielectric losses,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 271, 224–229, 2004.
[19] BaskaranAnand, Indoria Aakash,Akshay, VaratharajanVarrun,Murali Krishna Reddy,Tejaswi
Sathyasai,M.Nirmala Devi ,”Improvisation of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm,’’ inInt.Conf. Signal
Processing and Integrated Networks(SPIN), India, 2014.
[20] Ankunda R. Kiremire,”The Application of Pareto Principle in Software Engineering,’’ 19th October ,2011.
[21] Y. Shi and R. C. Eberhart, ‘‘A modified particle swarm optimizer,’’ in Proc.IEEE World Congr. Comput. Intell.,
1998, pp. 69–73.




How to Cite

Mouna.H, Mekaladevi. V, & Nirmala Devi. M. (2018). DESIGN OF MICROWAVE ABSORBERS USING IMPROVISED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe), 17(2), 188–200.



Regular Papers

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.