• Raksha Upadhyay
  • Arpita Tiwari
  • Uma Rathore Bhatt



Energy Saving, FiWi access network, PSM, Rate adaptation, WLAN, STA


Similar to any telecommunication network, energy efficiency is a desirable feature for fiber wireless (FiWi) access networks. These networks have optical back end and wireless front end. Both ends may contribute for energy efficiency. This work focusses on front end of FiWi access network, which is IEEE 802.11a wireless local area network (WLAN). For energy saving WLAN uses power saving mode (PSM), in which sleeping opportunity of a station is increased. During sleep time station remains switched off and results in reduction in energy required. However it is also observed that during active period of transmission considerable energy is consumed, which is the function of rate of data transmission. More data rate results in more active energy consumption but less transmission delay and vice versa. In order to reduce active and hence total energy consumption, we tried to transmit the data at lower data rate, while maintaining transmission delay in tolerable limit. This paper presents an Energy Efficient Rate Adaptation Algorithm (EERAA) for the front end of fiber wireless access networks. Simulation results compare the energy efficiency and transmission delay of EERAA and various existing fixed data rate schemes. Proposed scheme offers good trade-off between energy efficiency and transmission delay.


[1] U. R. Bhatt, N. Chouhan, R. Upadhyay, “Hybrid algorithm: A cost efficient solution for ONU placement in Fiber
Wireless (FiWi) network”, Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 22, pp 76-83., 2015.
[2] R.Q. Shaddad, A.B. Mohammad, S.A.Al-Gailani, A.M. Al-hetar, M.A. Elmagzoub, “A survey on access technologies
for broadband optical and wireless networks”, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ELSEVIER LTD.,41,
pp459-472, 2014.
[3] N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory, INRS Chadi M. Assi, Concordia University, “FiberWireless (FiWi) Access Networks: A Survey”, IEEE Communications Magazine , pp 160- 167, February 2009.
[4] L. G. Kazovsky, T. Ayhan, A. Gowda, K. M. Albeyoglu, H. Yang, A. Ng’Oma, “How to Design an Energy Efficient
Fiber-Wireless Network”, FC/NFOEC Technical Digest, 2013.
[5] K. Togashi, H. Nishiyama, N. Kato, H. Ujikawa, K. Suzuki, and N. Yoshimoto, “Cross Layer Analysis on ONU
Energy Consumption in Smart FiWi Networks”, IEEE wireless communications letters, vol.2, NO. 6, pp 695-698,
December 2013.
[6] Z. Md. Fadlullah, H. Nishiyama, and N. Kato, H. Ujikawa, K. Suzuki, and N. Yoshimoto, “Smart FiWi Networks:
Challenges and Solutions for QoS and Green Communications”, Published by the IEEE Computer Society, pp 86- 90,
[7] H. Nishiyama, K. Togashi, Y. Kawamoto, and N. Kato, “A Cooperative ONU Sleep Method for Reducing Latency
and Energy Consumption of STA in Smart-FiWi Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems,
pp1-9, 2014.
[8] H. Tabrizi, G. Farhadi, J. Cioffi, “An Intelligent Power Save Mode Mechanism for IEEE 802.11 WLAN” ,
Globecom2012 symposium on selected area of communication, pp 3460-3464, 2012.
[9] P. Agrawal, A. Kumar, J. Kuri, M. Panda, V. Navda, and R. Ramjee, “Opsm - opportunistic power save mode for
infrastructure ieee 802.11 wlan,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Commun. Workshops (ICC), pp. 1–6, 2010.
[10] X. Chen, S. Jin and D. Qiao, “M-PSM: Mobility-Aware Power Save Mode for IEEE 802.11 WLANs”, 31st
International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp 77-86, 2011.
[11] K. Togashi, H. Nishiyama, N. Kato, H. Ujikawa, K. Suzuki and N.Yoshimoto, “On the Effect of Cooperation Between
Power Saving Mechanisms in WLANs and PONs”, IEEE ICC 2013 - Wireless Networking Symposium, pp 6225-
[12] M.A. Mohamed, W.M. Bahget and S.S Mohamed, “A Performance Evaluation for Rate Adaptation Algorithms in
IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 99– No.4,
pp 54- 59, August 2014.
[13] Q. Xia, and M. Hamdi, “Smart Sender: A Practical Rate Adaptation Algorithm for Multirate IEEE 802.11 WLANs”,
[14] S. Biaz, S. Wu, “ERA: An Efficient Rate Adaption Algorithm with Fragmentation”, Dept. of Computer Science and
Software Engineering Auburn University, 107 Dunstan Hall, Auburn University, AL, 36849-5347, USA, June 15,
[15] S. H.Y. Wong, H. Yang, S. Lu and V. Bharghavan, “Robust Rate Adaptation for 802.11 Wireless Networks”,
MobiCom’06, Los Angeles, California, USA, pp 146-157, September 23–26, 2006.
[16] R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and Adaptive Link Rate Control for Power
Saving in 10G-EPON Systems”, IEEE "GLOBECOM", 2009.
[17] Chevillat, J. Jelitto, and H.L. Truong, “Dynamic Data Rate and Transmit Power Adjustment in IEEE 802.11 Wireless
LANs”, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp 123-145, July 2005.
[18] C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen and B. Nordman, “Managing energy consumption costs in desktop PCs and LAN
switches with proxying, split TCP connections, and scaling of link speed”, International journal of network
management, pp 297–310, 2005.




How to Cite

Raksha Upadhyay, Arpita Tiwari, & Uma Rathore Bhatt. (2019). ENERGY EFFICIENT RATE ADAPTATION ALGORITHM FOR FIWI ACCESS NETWORK. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe), 16(4), 908-921.



Regular Papers