• Thiago V. N. Coelho
  • A. Bessa dos Santos
  • Luiz C. C. Jr
  • Maria J. Pontes
  • Andres P. L.Barbero




Raman amplifier, numerical model, analytical model, energy conservation


This paper presents a modification for the already consolidated analytical model that calculates the gain and ripple in multi-pump Raman amplifiers by considering energy conservation. The original analytical model precisely computes the pump-pump interaction to the C- and L-band for a WDM input signal. However, when this method is used to amplify a large bandwidth, as the entire C and a part of the L band, the increase in the number of pump lasers impacts the obtained results. The error, if compared with results obtained by a numerical method, becomes significant. An analysis in terms of energy is proposed to minimize the discrepancy between analytical and numerical results. An improvement is observed to the gain results.


[1] S. Singh, A. Singh, R S. Keller, “Performance evaluation of EDFA, Raman and SOA optical amplifier for WDM systems”, Optik, vol.
124, pp. 95-101, 2013.
[2] V. R. Kumbhare. “Raman Amplifier Characteristics with Variation of Signal Power and Pump Power With and Without Amplified
Spontaneous Emission”, International Conference on Recent Trends & Advancements in Engineering Technology, 2015.
[3] T. V. N. Coelho, M. J. Pontes, J. P. Carvalho, J. L.Santos, A. Guerreiro. “A Remote Long-Period Grating Sensor with Electrical
Interrogation assisted by Raman Amplification.” Optics and Laser Technology, v.47, pg. 107-133, 2013.
[4] M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo. “Optical Fiber Networks for Remote Fiber Optic Sensors.” Sensors (Basel), vol. 12, pp 3929-
3951, 2012.
[5] C. R. S. Fludger; V. Handerek, “Pump to signal RIN Transfer in Raman Amplifier”, Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 15-17, Jan 2001.
[6] J. Bromage. “Raman Amplification for Fiber Communication System.” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp 79-93, Jan
[7] A. Berntson, S. Popov, E. Vanin, G. Jacobsen, and J. Karlsson, “Polarization dependence and gain tilt of Raman ampplifiers for WDM
systems,” In Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun (OFC2001), Anaheim, CA, 2001.
[8] Shirley P. N. Cani, L. de Calazans Calmon, M. J. Pontes, M. R. N. Ribeiro, M. E. V. Segatto, e A. V. T. Cartaxo, "An Analytical
Approximated Solution for the Gain of Broadband Raman Amplifiers With Multiple Counter-Pumps", Journal of Lightwave
Technology, vol. 27, no.7, pp. 944-951, 2009.
[9] S. Wang e C. Fan, “Generalised attenuation coefficients and a novel simulation model for Raman fibre amplifiers”, IEE Proc.-
Optoelectron., vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 156-159, 2001.
[10] M. N. Islam, “Raman Amplfier For Telecommunications 1. Physical Principles,” Springer Series in Optical Sciences, EUA, 2004.
[11] H. Kidorf; K. Rottwitt; M. Nissov; M. Ma; E. Rabarijaona. “Pump interactions in a 100nm bandwidth Raman Amplifier.” IEEE
Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 11, no. 5 pp. 530-532, 1999.
[12] M. Achtenhagen, T. G. Chang, B. Nyman e A. Hardy, “Analysis of a multiple-pump Raman amplifier”, Applied Physics Letters, vol.
78, no. 10, pp. 1322-1324, 2001.
[13] S. Namiki and Y. Emori. “Broadband Raman amplifiers design and practice, “ In Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, OSA
Technical Digest Washington DC: Optical Society of America, OMB2. 2000.




How to Cite

Thiago V. N. Coelho, A. Bessa dos Santos, Luiz C. C. Jr, Maria J. Pontes, & Andres P. L.Barbero. (2016). A CORRECTION METHOD FOR THE ANALYTICAL MODEL IN RAMAN AMPLIFIERS SYSTEMS BASED ON ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSUMPTION. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe), 15(3), 198–209. https://doi.org/10.1590/2179-10742016v15i3612



Regular Papers

Most read articles by the same author(s)