### Three-Layer Perceptron versus Radial Basis Function for the Low-pass Equivalent Behavioral Modeling of Wireless Transmitters

#### Abstract

This paper addresses the low-pass equivalent behavioral modeling of wireless transmitters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Radial basis function (RBF) and three-layer perceptron (TLP) are the most widely adopted ANN architectures. In wireless transmitter behavioral modeling literature, it is reported the effective use of either TLP or RBF. The contribution of this work is to present a comparative study between TLP and RBF in terms of computational complexity and modeling accuracy. In here, the basic requirements that the ANN-based models must comply with to properly model the behavior of bandpass systems is first identified. Then, both TLP and RBF are applied to the low-pass equivalent behavioral modeling of three different wireless transmitters: a GaN HEMT class AB, a Si LDMOS class AB and a GaN HEMT Doherty. For the three studied transmitters, RBF models trained by the orthogonal least squares algorithm do not provide acceptable modeling accuracies, while TLP models trained by the back-propagation algorithm do produce highly accurate models. For a fair comparison between TLP and RBF models, all models are then trained by the same nonlinear optimization tool based on the Gauss-Newton algorithm with line search. Indeed, by changing the training algorithm, the modeling accuracy of RBF models is significantly improved for the three studied transmitters. In the one hand, for the GaN HEMT Doherty transmitter in a scenario of similar number of network parameters, it is verified that the TLP provides a significant higher accuracy than the RBF, illustrated by improvements in NMSE and ACEPR metrics by up to 8.4 dB and 8.7 dB, respectively. On the other hand, for the GaN HEMT class AB and Si LDMOS class AB transmitters in a scenario of similar number of network parameters, the TLP and RBF modeling accuracies are very similar, although a slight superior performance is observed for TLP models, quantified by up to 0.7 dB and 1.5 dB improvements in NMSE and ACEPR metrics, respectively.Â

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