DESIGN OF FOUR-WAVE MIXING FREQUENCY-SHIFT-FREE AMPLITUDE REGENERATORS
Keywords:optical regeneration, four-wave mixing, heuristic procedur, crosstalk
Frequency-shift-free all-optical amplitude regenerators based on fiber-four-wave mixing were investigated by means of simulations. These regenerators, comprised of two stages of highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber, were designed using a heuristic procedure that implements a routine based on a genetic algorithm to optimize the device performance. A bit error rate improvement of up to four orders of magnitude was found as compared to a previous design approach discussed in the literature. It was due to a proper choice of the pump signal frequency regarding to the input signal that brings about a trade-off between four-wave mixing optical reshaping and four-wave mixing crosstalk leading to optimal optical regeneration. The proposed design method might be applied to other parametric devices that rely on four-wave mixing.
Conference on Optical Communications, 1998, pp. 475-476.
 E. Ciaramella, F. Curti, and S. Trillo, “All-optical signal reshaping by means of four-wave mixing in optical fibers,”
IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, pp.142–144, 2001.
 A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, “Regenerative properties of a pump-modulated four-wave mixing scheme in dispersion shifted
fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 21, pp. 1892-1902, 2003.
 M. Rochette, L. Fu, V. Ta’eed, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton , “2R optical regeneration: an all-optical solution for
BER improvement,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 12, pp. 736–744, 2006.
 R. Slavík, Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P.
Petropoulos,and D. J. Richardson, "Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded
signals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.18, pp.859-869, 2012.
 P. Runge, C.-A. Bunge, K.Petermann, "All-optical wavelength conversion with extinction ratio improvement of 100
Gb/s RZ-signals in ultralong bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.46,
 A. Fragkos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, “All-optical regeneration based on phase-sensitive nondegenerate four-wave mixing
in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, pp. 1826-1828, 2010.
 Gao Mingyi, J. Kurumida, and S. Namiki, “43-Gb/s operation of wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator,”
IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, pp. 718-720, 2011.
 R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A.D.
Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S.Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P.
Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation
telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photon. 4, pp. 690–695, 2010.
 E.A.M. Fagotto, M.L.F. Abbade,”Wavelength-shift-free all-optical 2R regeneration via four-wave mixing, in Proc.
IEEE Photonics 2011, Arlington, VA, USA, pp.563-564.
 D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley Longman
Publishing Co, 1989.
 G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th. ed. New York: Academic Press, 2006.
 S. Song, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, and R. Hui, “Intensity-dependent phase-matching effects on four-wave mixing in
optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 17, pp. 2285–2289, 1999.
 M.L.F. Abbade, J. D. Marconi, R. L. Cassiolato, V. Ishizuca, I. E. Fonseca, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field-Trial Evaluation
of Cross-Layer Effect Caused by All-Optical Wavelength Converters on IP Network Applications,” J. Lightw. Technol.
27, pp. 1816-1826, 2009.
 D. Marcuse, “Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical
amplifiers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 8, pp. 1816-1823, 1990.
 VPIphotonics GmbH, VPItransmissionMaker™ Optical Systems User’s Manual, Germany, 2013.
 K. Inoue and T. Mukai, "Signal wavelength dependence of gain saturation in a fiber optical parametric amplifier," Opt.
Lett. 26, pp. 10-12 (2001)