POLARIZATION MAINTAINING HIGHLY BIREFRINGENT SMALL MODE AREA PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER AT TELECOMMUNICATION WINDOW
Keywords:Birefringence, Effective mode area, Full-Vector Finite Element Method, Photonic crystal fiber
In this paper a highly polarization maintaining birefringent photonic crystal fiber at telecommunication window is reported via Full-Vectorial Finite Element Method(FV-FEM). By taking triangular lattice of three ring hexagonal structure PCF with suitable designing parameterssuch as symmetrical elliptical hole along radial axis of ellipticity a/b=5µm, air hole diameter d=1µm and pitch Λ=2.3µm, high birefringence (2.437×10-3) with small effective mode area(9.47µm2) and beat length (0.64cm) are found at wavelength 1.55µm.
 M. Medhat, N.I. Hendawy and A.A. Zaki, Interferometric Method to Determine the birefringence for an anisotropic
material , Egypt.J.Sol.26 (2) 231-239(2003).
 O. Frazao, J.M. Baptista and L.Santos, Recent Advances in High-Birefringence Fiber Loop Mirror Sensors, Sensors 7,
 John D.Joannopoulos, Steven G.Johnson, Joshua N.Winn and Robert D.Meade, “ Photonic Crystals: molding the flow of
light” Princeton University Press Princeton and Oxford (2008).
M.Tanaka and M.Fujita, Optical properties of a low-loss polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber,Optics Express 9,
B.Ortigosa, J.C.Knight, W.J.Wadsworth,T.A.Birks, P.St.J.Russel, Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,Optics
Letter 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
 Y-S.Sun,Y-F. Chau, H-H. Yeh, L-F Shen,T-J. Yang and D.P.Tsai, High birefringence photonic crystal fiber with a
complex unit cell of asymmetric elliptical air hole cladding,Applied Optics 46 (22) 5276-5281 (2007).
 K.Kishor,R.K.Sinha,A.D.Varshney and J.Singh, Theory and experiment on characterization of polarization maintaining
photonic crystal fiber from far field measurements, Proceeding of International conference on Optics and Photonics,ICOP2009,Chandigarh,30 oct-01 Nov.(2009).
 G.Tao-rong,Y.Feng-ping,W.Lin,L.Pen, L.Yi-fang and J.Shui-sheng, A kind of photonic crystal fiber with high
birefringence and low confinement loss,Optics Letters 4 (2)110-113 (2008).
S.Kawanishi and K.Okamoto, Polarization maintaining holey optical fiber, IEICE Soc.Conf.2000,B-10-153 (in
 T-J.Yang, L-F. Shen,Y-F. Chau, M-J.Sung, D.Chen and D.P.Tsai, High birefringence and low loss circular air-holes
photonic crystal fiber using complex unit cells in cladding,Optics Communications 281,4334-4338 (2008).
A.K.Ghatak, R.Srivastava, I.F.Faria, K.Thyagarajan and R.Tiwari, Accurate method for characterizing single-mode
fibers: theory and experiment, Electronics Letters 19,97-99 (1983).
 F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux and P.Roy, Complete Analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic
crystal fibers by Finite Element Method, Optical Fiber Technology 6, 181-191 (2000).
 A. D. Varshney and R. K. Sinha, Non-Linear Properties of photonic crystal fiber: Improved Effective index Method,
Chinese Journal of Physics 47 (2)184-191(2009).
 M. Qiu, Analysis of guided modes in photonic crystal fibers using the Finite-Differece Time-Domain Method ,
Microwave and optical Technology Letters 30 (5) (2001).
 L. Zhao-lun, H. Lan-tian and W. Wei, Tailoring Nonlinearity and Dispersion of Photonic crystal Fibers using Hybrid
cladding, Brazilian Journal of physics 39 (1) 50-54 (2009).
 W. S. Y. Zhao, Y. Bao, S. Li, Z. Zhang and T. Xu, Numerical Simulation and Analysis on mode property of photonic
crystal Fiber with high birefringence by Fast Multipole Method, PIRS online 3 (6) 836-841(2007).
 J.Jin, The, Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, 2nd Ed.,John Wiley & Sons,New York (2002).
 S. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, Full-Vectorial Imaginary-Distance Beam propagation Method based on a finite element
scheme:Application to photonic crystal fiber, IEEE JQE 38 (7) 927 (2002).
 D.Schulz, C. Glingener, M. Bludszuweit and E. Voges, Mixed Finite element Beam Propagation Method, IEEE JLT 16
 Y. Tsuji and M. Koshiba, Guided- mode and leaky mode Analysis by Imaginary distance beam propagation method
based on finite element scheme, IEEE JLT 18 (4) 618 (2000).
 M. Koshiba & Y.Tsuji, Curvilinear Hybrid Edge/Nodal Elements with triangular shape for for guided wave problems,
IEEE JLT 18 (5) 737 (2000).
 S. Mishra & V. K. Singh, Photonic Crystal Fiber Analysis by Finite Element Method, Proceeding of International
conference, Photonics 2008, Held at IIT Delhi, 242 (2008).
 S. Mishra and V. K. Singh, Study of Dispersion properties of hollow core photonic crystal fiber by Finite element
Method, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials-Rapid Communication 3 (9) 874-878 (2009).
 S.S. Mishra and V. K. Singh, Endlessly Single-mode Highly polarization maintaining birefringent photonic crystal
fiber with zero dispersion at wavelength at 1.55µm, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2 (9)
 S.S. Mishra and V. K.Singh, Study of Fundamental Propagation Properties of Solid Core Holey Photonic Crystal
Fiber in Telecommunication window, Chinese Journal of Physics 48 (5) 592-606 (2010).
 FEMSIM , Rsoft Design Group, Ossining, NY 10562 (2003).