# ANALYSIS OF FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATIONS FOR COMPUTING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HUMAN BODY

## Keywords:

Biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, finite element methods, frequency domain analysis, nonhomogeneous media## Abstract

Due to the very specific electromagnetic properties of biological tissues, electromagnetic field calculation in the human body is difficult and the choice of the best numerical formulation is not straightforward. This question is analysed by solving a canonical problem: the scattering of a plane wave by concentric spheres. Electromagnetic properties of various biological tissues are considered to take into account the heterogeneity of the human body. Several finite element formulations are compared in the 10Hz-1GHz frequency range with respect to the analytical solution.

## References

[1] N Siauve, R Scorretti, N Burais, L Nicolas, A Nicolas, “Electromagnetic fields and human body: a new challenge for

the electromagnetic field computation”, Compel, The Int. Jour. for Comp. and Math. in Electrical and Electronic Eng.,

vol 22, n°3, 2003, pp. 457-469.

[2] Om P. Gandhi, Jin-Yan Chen, “Numerical dosimetry at power-line frequencies using anatomically based models”,

Bioelectromagnetics Supplement,1:43-60 (1992).

[3] M. A. Stuchly, T. W. Dawson, “Interaction of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields with the human body”, IEEE

Proceedings, vol. 88, NO. 5, May 2000.

[4] S Grimnes, O G Martinsen, Bioimpedance and bioelectricity basics, Academic Press, 2000.

[5] S.Gabriel et al., “The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20

GHz”, Phys. Med. Biol. 41 2251-2269, 1996.

[6] Nadeem M., Thorlin T., Gandhi O.P., Persson M., “Computation of Electric and Magnetic Stimulation in Human Head

Using the 3-D Impedance Method”, IEEE Transaction On Biomedical Engineering, vol. 50, No. 7, July 2003.

[7] Dawson T.W., Stuchly M.A., “Effects of skeletal muscle anisotropy on human organ dosimetry under 60Hz uniform

magnetic field exposure”, Phys. Med. Biol. 43 (1998) 1059-1074.

[8] C. M. Furse and O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of Electric Fields and Currents Induced in a Millimeter-Resolution Human

Model at 60 Hz Using the FDTD Method”, Bioelectromagnetics 19:293–299 (1998).

[9] Scorreti R., Burais N., Fabregue O., Nicolas A., Nicolas L., “Computation of the induced current density into the

human body due to LF magnetic field generated by realistic devices”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 40, n° 2,

pp. 643-646, 2004.

[10] P. Dular, C. Geuzaine, GetDP Reference Manual, Edition 4.1, February 2005.

[11] D.W. Mackowski, R.A. Altenkirch, M.P. Menguc, “Internal absorption cross sections in a stratified sphere”, Appl. Opt,

29(10):15551-15559, 1990.

[12] A. Bossavit, “Mathematical modeling of the problem of micro-currents generated in living bodies by power lines”, Int.

J. of Applied Electromagnetics in Materials, 4 (1994) 291-299.

[13] P.D. Ledger, “An hp-adaptive finite element procedure for electromagnetic scattering problems”, PhD thesis, Dept.

Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea, 2002.

the electromagnetic field computation”, Compel, The Int. Jour. for Comp. and Math. in Electrical and Electronic Eng.,

vol 22, n°3, 2003, pp. 457-469.

[2] Om P. Gandhi, Jin-Yan Chen, “Numerical dosimetry at power-line frequencies using anatomically based models”,

Bioelectromagnetics Supplement,1:43-60 (1992).

[3] M. A. Stuchly, T. W. Dawson, “Interaction of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields with the human body”, IEEE

Proceedings, vol. 88, NO. 5, May 2000.

[4] S Grimnes, O G Martinsen, Bioimpedance and bioelectricity basics, Academic Press, 2000.

[5] S.Gabriel et al., “The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20

GHz”, Phys. Med. Biol. 41 2251-2269, 1996.

[6] Nadeem M., Thorlin T., Gandhi O.P., Persson M., “Computation of Electric and Magnetic Stimulation in Human Head

Using the 3-D Impedance Method”, IEEE Transaction On Biomedical Engineering, vol. 50, No. 7, July 2003.

[7] Dawson T.W., Stuchly M.A., “Effects of skeletal muscle anisotropy on human organ dosimetry under 60Hz uniform

magnetic field exposure”, Phys. Med. Biol. 43 (1998) 1059-1074.

[8] C. M. Furse and O. P. Gandhi, “Calculation of Electric Fields and Currents Induced in a Millimeter-Resolution Human

Model at 60 Hz Using the FDTD Method”, Bioelectromagnetics 19:293–299 (1998).

[9] Scorreti R., Burais N., Fabregue O., Nicolas A., Nicolas L., “Computation of the induced current density into the

human body due to LF magnetic field generated by realistic devices”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 40, n° 2,

pp. 643-646, 2004.

[10] P. Dular, C. Geuzaine, GetDP Reference Manual, Edition 4.1, February 2005.

[11] D.W. Mackowski, R.A. Altenkirch, M.P. Menguc, “Internal absorption cross sections in a stratified sphere”, Appl. Opt,

29(10):15551-15559, 1990.

[12] A. Bossavit, “Mathematical modeling of the problem of micro-currents generated in living bodies by power lines”, Int.

J. of Applied Electromagnetics in Materials, 4 (1994) 291-299.

[13] P.D. Ledger, “An hp-adaptive finite element procedure for electromagnetic scattering problems”, PhD thesis, Dept.

Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea, 2002.

## Downloads

## Published

2009-08-01

## How to Cite

*Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe)*,

*8*(1), 56S-63S. Retrieved from http://www.jmoe.org/index.php/jmoe/article/view/258

## Issue

## Section

Regular Papers