Design and Performance Study of Single and Multi-Layered Fractal Based Miniaturized Patch Antennas for 2.4 GHz Applications
Keywords:DGS, fractal, microstrip, Minkowski, patch
The design and characterization of single and multi-
layered miniaturized microstrip antennas resonating at 2.4 GHz
are proposed. The miniaturization is accomplished by fractal
Defected Ground Structure (DGS). The DGS used for
miniaturization is a Modified Minkowski Fractal DGS (M-
MFDGS). The proposed size reduction process with M-MFDGS
follows the selection of the best antenna configuration and its
design parameters through sensitivity analysis and pattern search
optimization. Microstrip patch antennas with three different
feeding mechanisms are considered here to validate the effect of
DGS over the size reduction and performance improvement.
Incorporating M-MFDGS in three antennas, the first one with
microstrip line feed accomplishes a maximum patch area reduction
of 70% among the three proposed structures with a gain of 1.43 dBi.
Likewise, with a slightly higher dimension than the first structure,
the second antenna with proximity-coupled feed achieves a higher
gain (5.11 dBi) and bandwidth (110 MHz). Although the size
reduction in the third antenna with aperture-coupled feed is a little
less it has the highest gain (5.91 dBi) among all the three. All three
compact antennas are physically fabricated and the simulated
results are validated with the measured results.
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