Assessment of Total Attenuation and Adaptive Scheme for Quality of Service Enhancement in Tropical Weather for Satellite Networks and 5G Applications in Nigeria.
Keywords:Total attenuation, Adaptive scheme, QoS enhancement, Satellite networks, Digital video broadcasting, Dynamic tropical weather
The dynamic weather condition is a major concern for optimum channel utilization in recent times, especially at higher frequencies with larger bandwidth for 5G applications. Over the years, rain-induced attenuation among the hydrometeors has been linked as the major cause of signal impairment especially at the frequency, f > 10 GHz. However, when f > 18 GHz, the significant impact of other hydrometeors; cloud/fog, and scintillation increases tremendously, especially for Low Earth Orbit, LEO satellites. LEO satellites operating at low altitude, find applications in fibre optics technology among others. In this paper, the assessment of combined impairments based on 5-year (2012-2016) data has been carried out and a dynamic adaptive intelligent scheme (DAIS) has been adopted to achieve a good quality of service along the satellite channels operating at Ku-V band frequencies over five stations representing different climatic regions in Nigeria namely: Port Harcourt (PH), Akure, Ilorin, Zaria, and Kano. The proposed DAIS based on fuzzy logic was able to achieve a significant reduction in the transmitting power by about 70% and SNR by 50% across the frequencies considered without altering the information content of the downlink parameters, thereby improving the QoS significantly and adhere to Customer Service Level Agreements (CSLAs) irrespective of the weather dynamics. The overall results show that the adaptive intelligent techniques can effectively fix signal links under the dynamic weather conditions for both satellite and wireless networks in this region. Information from the results is timely because it will serve as the bedrock for the newly launched transformation to the digital video broadcasting (DVB) system in Nigeria for effective service delivery.
R. Z. Dhafer and S. A. A. A. W. Thulfiqar, "Simplified the QoS Factor for the Ad-Hoc Network Using Fuzzy Technique," International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 06No.09, p. 7, 2013.
R. K. Crane, "Prediction of the Effects of Rain on Satellite Communication Systems," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 65, pp. 456-474, 1977.
L. J. Ippolito, "Propagation Effects and System Performance Considerations for Satellite Communications above 10 Ghz," in in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference and Exhibition GLOBECOM '90, 1990, pp. 89-91 vol.1.
K. Harb, C. Huang, A. Srinivasan, and B. Cheng, "Intelligent Weather Aware Scheme for Satellite Systems," in 2008 IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008, pp. 1930-1936.
J. S. Ojo and P. A. Owolawi, "Estimation of the Propagation Impairments of Satellite Systems Design in the SHF and EHF Bands in Subtropical Region," Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, vol. 49, pp. 147-159, 2015/01/01 2015.
J. S. Ojo, "Analysis of Dynamical Rain Duration and Return Periods for Terrestrial and Satellite Communication Applications in a Tropical Climate," International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 7, pp. 1305-1310, 2016.
G. O. Ajayi and I. E. Owolabi, "Rainfall Parameters from Disdrometer Dropsize Measurements at a Tropical Station," Ann. Telecomm., vol. 42, pp. 3-12, 1987.
R. K. Crane, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation through Rain: Wiley New York, 1996.
A. Dissanayake, J. Allnutt, and F. Haidara, "A Prediction Model that Combines Rain Attenuation and other Propagation Impairments along Earth-Satellite Paths," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 45, pp. 1546-1558, 1997.
J. S. Ojo, M. O. Ajewole, and S. K. Sarkar, "Rain rate and Rain Attenuation Prediction for Satellite Communication in Ku and Ka bands over Nigeria," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 5, pp. 207-223, 2008.
J. S. Mandeep, "Rain Attenuation Statistics over a Terrestrial Link at 32.6 GHz at Malaysia," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 3, pp. 1086-1093, 2009.
S. Shrestha and D. Choi, "Study of Rain Attenuation in Ka band for Satellite Communication in South Korea," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol. 148, pp. 53-63, 2016/10/01/ 2016.
B. Vallamsundar, J. Zhu, K. Ponnambalam, C. Huang, A. Srinivasan, and B. Cheng, "Congestion Control for Adaptive Satellite Communication Systems using Intelligent Systems," in 2007 International Symposium on Signals, Systems and Electronics, 2007, pp. 415-418.
C. Capsoni, F. Fedi, C. Magistroni, A. Pawlina, and A. Paraboni, "Data and Theory for a New Model of the Horizontal Structure of Rain Cells for Propagation Applications," Radio Science, vol. 22, pp. 395-404, 1987.
Y. Karasawa and T. Matsudo, "Characteristics of Fading on Low-Elevation Angle Earth-Space Paths with Concurrent Rain Attenuation and Scintillation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 39, pp. 657-661, 1991.
K. Harb, A. Srinivasan, H. Changcheng, and B. Cheng, "Prediction Method to Maintain QoS in Weather Impacted Wireless and Satellite Networks," in 2007 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2007, pp. 4008-4013.
I. Adegbidin, P. A. Owolawi, and M. O. Odhiambo, "Intelligent Weather Awareness Technique for Mitigating Propagation Impairment at SHF and EHF Satellite Network System in a Tropical Climate," Research Journal of the South African Institute of Electrical Engineers, vol. 107, pp. 136 – 145, 2016.
J. S. Ojo and P. A. Owolawi, "Prediction of Time-series Rain Attenuation based on Rain Rate using Synthetic Storm Techniques over a Subtropical Region," In Proceedings, Southern Africa Telecommunication Networks and Applications (SATNAC-2014) at Boardwalk, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 31 August - 3 September, 2014, pp. 67 – 71, 2014.
ITU-Rec.P.618-12, "Propagation Data and Prediction Method required for the Design of Earth-Space Telecommunication Systems," Radio Wave Propagation, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.6I8-12, 2015.
ITU-Rec.P.618-13, "Propagation Data and Prediction Method required for the Design of Earth-Space Telecommunication Systems," Radio Wave Propagation, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.6I8-13, 2017.
ITU-Rec.P.838-3, "Specific Attenuation Model for Rain for use in Prediction Methods," Radio Wave Propagation, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.838-3, 2005.
ITU-Rec.P.676-10, "Attenuation by Atmospheric Gases," Radio Wave Propagation, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P. 676-10, 2013.
ITU-Rec.P.840-6, "Attenuation due to Clouds and Fog," Radio Wave Propagation, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.840-6, 2013.
E. Lutz, M. Werner, and A. Jahn, Satellite Systems for Personal and Broadband Communications. New York: Springer, 2000.
K. Harb, O. Butt, S. Abdul-Jauwad, and A. M. Al-Yami, "Systems Adaptation for Satellite Signal under Dust, Sand and Gaseous Attenuations," Journal of Wireless Networking and Communications, vol. 3, pp. 39-49, 2013.
A. M. Al-Saegh, A. Sali, J. S. Mandeep, A. Ismail, A. H. J. Al-Jumaily, and C. Gomes, "Atmospheric Propagation Model for Satellite Communications," in MATLAB Applications for the Practical Engineer, K. Bennett, Ed., ed Croatia: Intech, 2014, pp. 249-275.
DVB-Calculator. http://www.satellite-calculations.com/Satellite/Downlink.htm accessed 25 June, 2017. [Online].
A. Gusmao, R. Dinis, J. Conceicao, and N. Esteves, "Comparison of Two Modulation Choices for Broadband Wireless Communications," in VTC2000-Spring. 2000 IEEE 51st Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.00CH37026), 2000, pp. 1300-1305 vol.2.
ITU-Rec.P.837-6, "Characteristics of Precipitation for Propagation Modelling," Radiowave Propagation Series, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.837-6, 2012.
ITU-Rec.P.311-15, "Acquisition, Presentation and Analysis of Data in Studies of Tropospheric Propagation," Radio Wave Propagation, International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.311-15 2013.
J. S. Ojo, M. O. Ajewole, and L. D. Emiliani, "One-Minute Rain-Rate Contour Maps for Microwave-Communication-System Planning in a Tropical Country: Nigeria," Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE, vol. 51, pp. 82-89, 2009.
J. S. Ojo and P. A. Owolawi, "Application of Synthetic Storm Technique for Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Slant Path Ka-Band Rain Attenuation Time Series over a Subtropical Location in South Africa," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2015, p. 474397, 2015/01/05 2015.
U. Kesavan, A. R. Tharek, and M. D. Rafiqul-Islam, "Rain Attenuation Prediction using Frequency Scaling Technique at Tropical Region for Terrestrial Link," Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium,Taipei, March, 25-28, 2013.
A. Al-Saegh, A. Sali, J. Mandeep, A. Ismail, A. Al-Jumaily, and C. Gomes, "Atmospheric Propagation Model for Satellite Communications," in MATLAB Applications for the Practical Engineer, K. e. Bennett, Ed., ed, 2014.